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11 June 2018, 08:16
Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt is promising more support for doctors and nurses who make "honest mistakes" while treating patients so they can learn from their errors without fear of prosecution.
Mr Hunt has accepted the main findings of a review into the use of gross negligence manslaughter in healthcare amid concerns that the fear of criminal proceedings was having a "chilling effect" on the medical profession.
The Health Secretary ordered the inquiry by the eminent surgeon Professor Sir Norman Williams in February following the outcry over the treatment of Dr Hadiza Bawa-Garba.
The trainee paediatrician was found guilty of gross negligence manslaughter in 2015 over the death at Leicester Royal Infirmary of six-year-old Jack Adcock after he developed sepsis in 2011.
A tribunal ruled she should remain on the medical register despite the conviction, but in January the General Medical Council (GMC) succeeded in getting her struck off after taking the case to the High Court.
The GMC's actions angered many doctors who complained important issues raised by the case - including dangerous levels of understaffing, failures of IT systems, and staff being required to work in inappropriate conditions - had been ignored.
In his report, to be published in full on Monday, Sir Norman calls for a "clearer understanding" of when proceedings for gross negligence manslaughter should be brought in healthcare, so practitioners are reassured they would apply only in cases of "very poor performance" and not "honest mistakes".
While accepting the findings, Mr Hunt has sought to reassure patients and their families that there will be improved scrutiny of deaths in the NHS, with the roll-out of a system of medical examiners - senior doctors who will look at all patient deaths which are not referred to a coroner.
Official said the changes would mean bereaved families would get more information about the circumstances of their loved ones' deaths while more data would be shared across the NHS to help prevent avoidable deaths.
"When something goes tragically wrong in healthcare, the best apology to grieving families is to guarantee that no-one will experience that same heartache again," Mr Hunt said.
"I was deeply concerned about the unintended chilling effect on clinicians' ability to learn from mistakes following recent court rulings, and the actions from this authoritative review will help us promise them that the NHS will support them to learn, rather than seek to blame."
In other recommendations, Sir Norman calls for the removal of the GMC's power to appeal the rulings of the Medical Practitioners' Tribunal, with challenges restricted to the the Professional Standards Authority.
He says regulators investigating fitness to practice, should not be able request a practitioners' personal case notes - known as reflective material - to ensure they were not deterred from using their notes for open and honest reflection on their performance. The GMC said it does not request reflective material as part of its investigations.
Sir Norman also calls for improvements in the processes for healthcare professionals providing expert opinion in criminal and regulatory cases.
In a further measure, Mr Hunt is announcing a new programme offering NHS consultants confidential data on their own clinical results and how they compare nationally to help them to learn and improve.
Sir Norman said his recommendations would support a "just and learning culture" in healthcare.
"A clearer understanding of the bar for gross negligence manslaughter in law should lead to fewer criminal investigations which are limited to just those rare cases where an individual's performance is so 'truly exceptionally bad' that it requires a criminal sanction," he said.
"This clarity together with an understanding by the investigatory authorities as to the complexity of modern healthcare in which the individual operates should help to dispel the real fear felt by healthcare professionals who are concerned that in the well-intentioned discharge of their duty they may be subject to criminal or regulatory processes."
The British Medical Association, representing doctors, said that it would be monitoring closely how the law was applied in the light of the review's recommendations.
BMA council chair Dr Chaand Nagpaul said: "If we, as doctors, and the wider health service are to learn from these mistakes and to prevent such tragedies occurring, the NHS needs a dramatic shift away from the current culture of blame."
The GMC said it was "disappointed" that the review had not accepted its recommendation that doctors' reflective notes should be given legal protection in court proceedings.